Myelolipoma

myelolipoma

Myelolipoma is a benign tumor-like lesion composed of mature adipose (fat) tissue and hematopoietic (blood-forming) elements in various proportions.

Myelolipoma is a benign tumor-like lesion composed of mature adipose (fat) tissue and hematopoietic (blood-forming) elements in various proportions.

Myelolipomas can present in the adrenal gland, or outside of the gland.

Today, with the widespread use of radiological studies such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the incidental detection of myelolipoma has become more common, constituting up to 7–15% of incidental adrenal masses.

While myelolipomas are mostly incidental findings, they may become symptomatic causing flank pain and abdominal discomfort by causing the pressure of surrounding structures and may even present with necrosis, rupture, hemorrhage, or hemorrhagic shock, blood in the urine, a palpable lump or high blood pressure.

The most well-recognized complication of adrenal myelolipoma is a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

Small myelolipomas generally do not produce symptoms and do not require treatment. Ongoing surveillance of these lesions by a doctor is recommended.

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has shown a considerable decrease in surgically derived morbidity as well as hospital stay and convalescence.

Ultimately, the optimal treatment for myelolipoma depends on the size and symptoms of the mass and the needs of the patient.

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